Friday, January 24, 2020
Educators Must Make Learning Enjoyable As educators we wish to have the students gain knowledge, through our efforts, and continue to expand their minds using the basics we have taught them. In an era when so many outside interests often cloud the minds of our impressionable youth, we often wonder how we can accomplish this task. Our society has become increasingly chaotic in comparison to how it was in my fathers time. With an increase in violence, commercialism, and two working parents, children today don't have the same structure in their lives as they did in earlier times. This lack of structure, viewed as independence, places the child in a role more similar to that of an adult. There is an expectation that our children will function as child and the guardian at the same time. Children arrive home and frequently no one is there to greet them or remind them of their responsibilities as a student. Many parents have little or no involvement at all with their children's education at all. According to Rousseau, not being involved or staying passive until the child wants to learn an idea, is the correct method. I hate to say that we need to force a student to learn, but not everyone is self motivated. A student does need to have some control, but the control needs to be structured. Parents need to be invo lved. Study habits are not developed just at school, they are also developed at home, with the parent supervising the activity. The parent need to allot time periods where the student, or hopefully the student and the parent can sit down and develop thinking skills and communicate their ideas to one another. By teaching children the value of stimulating their minds all the time, not just at school, they will appreciate the knowledge they have gained and will be more alert when learning new ideas. As an educator we need to find ways to make concepts interesting to our students. Think about the instructor who stands in front of the classroom and scribbles on the board, completely oblivious to the students sitting in the classroom. The bright students may still do well under these conditions, but the other students often become bored. Is it the responsibility of the students to pay attention to the instructor or is it the responsibility of the instructor to pay attention to the class?
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Unit 2 Assignment- The developing child D1 The expected social stage of social development for a 4 year old is that they are more aware to talk to knew people than when they were the age of 3; the children are more friendly and caring towards others. Children are a lot more confident in these ages. D2 The expected social stage of development for a 5 year old is, her or she is becoming very co-operative and engages in conversation. A 5 year old can speak clearly and use different connectives properly in a sentence. Children can also start to choose their own friends.By the end of age 5 children want to please friends, agree to rules and enjoy dancing and singing. D3, D4 One method of observation and recording social development of a child aged 5 could be Ã¢â¬Ëstructured recordingÃ¢â¬â¢. Structured recording is where you observe a child independently whilst theyÃ¢â¬â¢re playing, learning, or participating in an activity and following their progress by following a basic tick/check list. It involves looking for particular skills or behaviour that they can either do or cannot. D5 Many factors may affect the way children express their social development.The factors could be, environmental risk factors such as living in an unsafe community, receiving care within a low-quality child care setting, lack of resources available in the community or lack of policies supporting children and families. D6 Snack and meal times can support social development in many ways, for example children learn how to co-operate with one another, they learn how to share with one another for example passing the food bowl around or taking turns, children can also make new friends by sitting near someone they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know and interacting with them.This is supporting the child to develop in their social skills. D7 Diversity is an understanding and excepting that all children are different. It is showing that everyone is diverse, and that everyone has different wants and needs. Inclusiv e practise is when all children, no matter how diverse, are included in the same activity and donÃ¢â¬â¢t get left out; however the practitioners help adjust activities to help meet the individual needs of others, whilst making them feel like they can do anything with another child no matter their ability.B1 As a practitioner, In order to help the child going through this transition you need to find out as much information as you can, you may do this via parents or career. To support the child through this transition make sure the child understands that everyone will go through the same changes, but that they happen earlier in some children and later in others. Encourage children to take part in regular physical or social activities and give them openings to discuss with you any worries or concerns. B2Collecting information be carrying out observations on children needs to be seen as the starting point rather than the end point. The next step is to evaluate the information although the way in which you might do this may vary. As a practitioner, you might evaluate the observations and a learning tool for your own professional development and feedback your thoughts to your supervisor. As a practitioner, observations might be evaluated so that information can be passed on to your parents and more importantly, so that you can plan more effectively for the childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and interests.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Broadly skilled and versatile assistant accountant and bookkeeper with more than 10+ years experience across multiple industries, providing both hands-on accounting support and higher level reporting. Excellent financial analysis and reporting skills, providing insights, trends and financial statistics for senior management to use in decision making. Able to confidently maintain large AP AR ledgers, Recognised as someone who is pro-active with the ability to quickly identify improvements in processes and offer recommendations to strengthen reporting controls. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Statutory Financial Reports Ã¢â¬ ¢ General Bookkeeping Ã¢â¬ ¢ General Ledgers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accounts Receivables Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accounts Payable Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management Reports Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bank Reconciliations Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cash Management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inter-Company Reconciliations Ã¢â¬ ¢ Aged Debtor Management Ã¢â¬ ¢ End of Month Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fixed Assets Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tax Returns Ã¢â¬ ¢ Payroll Maintenance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Troubleshooting Accounts Qualifications Education: Ã¢â¬ ¢ CIMA Certificate in Business Accounting (Credit) Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA), 2014 Subjects included: Fundamentals of Management Accounting, Financial Accounting, Business Mathematics, Business Economics Ã¢â¬ ¢ National Diploma: Cost and Management Accounting (Credit) Cape Technikon, Cape Town, 2004 Named best student in the 4-year course: BTech: Cost and Management Accounting by the Faculty of Business Informatics at the Cape Technikon at the end of the year 2004. Subjects included: Financial Accounting, Cost and Management Accounting,Show MoreRelatedSample Resume : Financial Analysis And Reporting Skills919 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesboth hands-on accounting support and higher level reporting. Excellent financial analysis and reporting skills, providing insights, trends and financial statistics for senior management to use in decision making. Able to confidently maintain large AP AR ledgers, Recognised as someone who is pro-active with the ability to quickly identify improvements in processes and offer recommendations to strengthen reporting controls. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Statutory Financial Reports Ã¢â¬ ¢ General Bookkeeping Ã¢â¬ ¢ General Ledgers Ã¢â¬ ¢Read MoreCard 405- Rough Draft Portfolio1921 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesEducationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.6 ResumeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.9 Professional development and Training Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦..10 ReferenceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.11 Reference List Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..12 Awards and Accomplishments Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦13 Volunteer History Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..14 Professional Affiliations Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..15 Career Path Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..16 Work Samples Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Read MoreCulture6797 Words Ã |Ã 28 PagesDate of commencement: 1st April 2013 of Summer Training 5. Number of days present 45 days out of 45 days. 6. I hereby declare that, I have learnt following skills during my Summer Training: Sr. | Description | 1 | Recruitment process | 2 | Reference check | 3 | Working Naukri | 4 | Interview process | 5 | Reporting process | DECLARATION I, Kavita Kumari student of MBA-HR studying in VIth Trimester, hereby declare that the Summer Training report on Ã¢â¬Å"RecruitmentRead MoreJob Analysis Of Job Analysis And Competency Based Job9467 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesprocess of planning, recruiting, selecting, and training. CHNÃ¢â¬â¢s staffing activities use two types of job analysis: job requirements job analysis and competency based job analysis. The jobs requirements job analysis established the details or tasks and their importance in performing the job, along with necessary KSAOs the employee applies to succeed in performing the job. The competency based job analysis bestowed the general competencies of the company, aligning them with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall missionRead MoreEmployment Cycle15431 Words Ã |Ã 62 PagesSA Establishment M Uncorrected sample pages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cambridge University Press Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã © Somers, Cain, Jeffery 2011 Ã¢â¬ ¢ 978-1-107-63549-4 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ph 03 8671 1400 PL Strategic business objectives Human resources planning Employment cycle Maintenance Termination WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s ahead E 10 ManageMent of the eMployMent cycle PL demand and supply of labour, succession planning and the overall management of the three phases of the employment cycle: establishment, maintenance and termination. Key Knowledge Read MoreGuidelines for Writing Project Proposal3565 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesthe rector or president of a university, the head of a government department, or the executive officer of a non-governmental organization.) In cases where the research leader and the responsible officer are the same, please have the responsible financial officer of the institution submit or co-sign the formal request. In cases where there has been no previous collaboration between the institution presenting the proposal and IDRC, a copy of the document certifying the legal status of the institutionRead MoreInternal Audit Function and Fraud Detection in Government Agencies. Acase Study of Naads Kumi7549 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pagesintervention mechanisms like financial reporting and external audit to helps maintain cost-efficient contracting between owners and managers. It is designed by government agencies to add value and improve organizational performance. It helps organizations accomplish their objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approaches to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes.Ã¢â¬ Internal audit helps organizations to ensure that financial and other records areRead MoreBusiness Case: Marketing Research for Customers Segmentation12172 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pages........ 13 3.4.3 Defining Survey Content ........................ ..................................................... 13 3.4.4 Analysis Plan .............................................................................................. 14 3.4.5 Fielding the Survey ..................................................................................... 15 3.4.6 Analysis Interpretation ............................................................................. 15 3.4.7 Translating Results to ActionRead MoreSyllabus: Business Communication and Report Writing2672 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesTechnology in Modern Communication: Electronic media in oral and written communication, Telephone, Fax, ISD, computer, internet, E-mail, multimedia and business related software. 8. Communication skills: Improving skills in non-verbal and verbal communication ( Effective listening, reading skills, effective writing Ã¢â¬âstyle and techniques, writing techniques, barriers to effective communication and their removal. 9. Business Report Writing: Types of report, characteristics and importance ofRead MoreLiterature Review on External Sources of Recruitment11779 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pagescommonly known as job boards. OtherÃ employmentÃ sites offerÃ employer reviews, career and job-search advice describe different job descriptions or employers. Through a job website a prospective employee can locate and fill out aÃ job applicationÃ or submitÃ resumesÃ over the Internet for the advertised position. The primary aim of recruiting online, through job portals and recruitment companies is to help you source your staff directly and reduce the cost of hiring the best available candidate for the
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Monday, December 23, 2019
Margo Dyer GRMN-JWST: 2502010 Professor Weber Recitation Fri. 11 AM- Emily Torture According to Amery Torture, (n.), the action or practice of inflicting severe pain on someone as a punishment or to force them to do or say something, or for the pleasure of the person inflicting the pain. After reading Ã¢â¬Å"TortureÃ¢â¬ by Holocaust survivor, Jean Amery, it is clear that the above definition of torture does not provide an honest connotative definition for the act and effects of torture. Amery speaks about torture from his own personal experiences in both Auschwitz and Buchenwald, providing witness to the dehumanization of Jews. In Ã¢â¬Å"TortureÃ¢â¬ , Jean Amery truthfully depicts torture as an unimaginable terror, in which one loses sense of self, human dignity, and trust in the world, while gaining a haunted future. Throughout the Holocaust torture was used by many Nazis in order to get the Jewish prisoners to do something or give information. Torture has always been an element of Fascism, and Amery argues that Ã¢â¬Å"...torture was not an accidental quality of this Third Reich, but its essenceÃ¢â¬ . He continues to even say that if torture were removed from Fascism, there would be nothing left. In HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Germany, Nazis tortured for information, Ã¢â¬Å"but in addition they tortured with good conscience of depravityÃ¢â¬ , meaning they were aware of the moral corruption it was causing, all in all Ã¢â¬Å"they tortured because they were torturersÃ¢â¬ . Nazis purposefully placed torture in their ways, but becameShow MoreRelatedAt the Minds Limit by Jean Amery: Book Report2302 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesContemplations by a Survivor on Auschwitz and its Realities By Jean Amery Ã¢â¬Å"At The MindÃ¢â¬â¢s LimitÃ¢â¬ is a series of essays written by Jean Amery, a German born Jew who survived the holocaust, who gives the reader a very interesting perspective into the mind of a persecuted Jew from 1935 forward. Amery does not consider himself a religious Jew or one who follows any Jewish traditions. In fact, he did not know that Yiddish was a language until he was 18. So Amery describes the events leading up to and following the
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Meta-analysis was designed as a method of reducing the threats to validity that often arise as a result of small sample sizes. When sample sizes used for a particular experiment are too small, it becomes possible for errors to enter the data and cause it to become skewed or biased. Meta-analysis involves the survey and investigation of data from a number of related studies. We will write a custom essay sample on Meta-analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Such analysis is usually advantageous in its ability to produce more accurate data. One of the problems that arise when conducting a review of studies comes from the methods chosen to analyze data. The usual methods of integrating research that has been previously done often prove unable to cope with the growing amounts of research with which some researchers have to deal. Meta-analysis helps eliminate this problem. It also delves into the quality of the research being evaluated, in order to reduce the problem of citing research without proper examination of the conclusions and the methods used to reach these. It also prescribes methods for researchers to weigh adequately all the evidence whether it is for or against their own preconceived ideas or preferences, thereby reducing the bias of research. Problems with internal validity arise as a result of such practices as non-randomization, small sample size, discontinuation of the studies by participants (drop-out), the occurrence of significant historical events during a study, lack of control groups, and the problem of extreme results versus the regression effect toward the mean (Losh, 2002). In order to improve the internal validity of research, meta-analysis covers a wide array of studies that serve to combat each of these problems in the following ways. Because meta-analysis deals with a large number of individual studies, problems regarding small sample size can be diminished as the number of participants within the study now becomes the aggregate of all those who participated in the individual studies. As a result, meta-analyses Ã¢â¬Å"have more power to detect small but clinically significant effectsÃ¢â¬ (Davies Crombie, n.d.). Biases in the data that arise from non-randomization and problems with lack of control groups can also be diminished because of the practices of meta-analysis experts in choosing carefully which studies to include in their research. When conducting this type of research, it becomes crucial to choose primary research that is Ã¢â¬Å"a complete, unbiased collection of original, high-quality studies that examine the same [Ã¢â¬ ¦] questionÃ¢â¬ (Davies Crombie, n.d.). Researchers who adhere to this practice scrutinize the methodologies of the different studies and remove those that contain major control and randomization flaws. The large number of studies used in meta-analysis also combats the problems or biases that may arise from such phenomena as regression toward the mean. When studies are done (or tests taken) it is often the case that a small percentage of participants score exceptionally high or low. It is often the case, too, that when/if retakes of these studies are done, these same exceptional scorers either increase or decrease their scores, taking them closer to the mean. With a large body of studies taken in meta-analysis, the effects of these exceptions and regressions can evened out, so that the study gives a more accurate and statistically valid picture of the problem/issue being examined. As external validity is related to the ability to generalize results across populations, though similar studies must be chosen for meta-analyses, the researcher may be careful to include ones that contain a wide variety of subject types. This will reduce the effects of population sensitization (familiarity with the processes of the test) as well as the likelihood of certain subject types to be (artificially) more inclined to one outcome or another based on the demographic of that particular group. The more inclusive the criteria for the participants, the more widely generalizable will the meta-analytic study become (Davies Crombie, n.d.). References Davies, H.T.O. I. K. Crombie. (n.d.). Ã¢â¬Å"What is meta-analysis?Ã¢â¬ Evidence-based Medicine. Ã Ã Ã Ã Howard Medical Communications. 1(8). Losh, S. C. (2002). Ã¢â¬Å"Quasi-experiments, internal validity, and experiments II.Ã¢â¬ Methods of Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Educational Research. Ã Florida State University. Retrieved on January 29, 2007 from http://edf5481-01.fa02.fsu.edu/Guide4.html Ã How to cite Meta-analysis, Essay examples
Friday, December 6, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Salaries In Any Country And This Case Singapore? Answer: Introducation The minimum wage is one of the popular ways meant to reduce the problem of having people receiving meager salaries in any country and this case Singapore. However, it should be admitted that it is not a complete solution, though it sets the labor standards. The benefit of the minimum wage is that the government can set a floor below which any stakeholder cannot risk going due to the huge penalties and fines for those found guilty(Bernstein, 2013). The low wage workers are faced with a problem of lacking a bargaining clout, and this is the reason comes in to help them by setting minimum wage laws. It becomes fundamental these days to have a critical evaluation of the policies set to ensure that they offset inequalities in income distribution and stagnation of the wages more so for individuals experiencing low budgets. For most of the people, the debate is on inequality, and the constant real incomes and the whole problem is directed at the workers. It is often argued out that the workers lack the skills needed by employers and again business the wage they receive reflects the value they add on commodities produced(Bernstein, 2013)(Fisher, 2016). However, in countries like Singapore, the government does not dictate the minimum wage. Alternatively, the government prefers the demand and supply for labor to determine the wage. As of today, close to 30000 people in Singapore earn less than 1000 dollars monthly in industries such as hospitality and logistics. The low wages in such industries is because the country depends on labor from other countries which is cheap. It is due to such factors that a minimum wage is required to ensure that the locals in Singapore earn a decent living. However, despite the advantages that come with minimum wage, there are some challenges with such a policy. Minimum wage could cause some of the workers lose jobs more so the wage employees. The most objections against minimum wage in Singapore are that the policy would make many workers lose jobs hurting employees that benefit from low wages(Jeraldine Phneah, 2017). The current situation in Singapore characterized by unemployment a situation resulting from minimum wage is a dream far from reality. Presently, due to the quota for work permits being tightened, many firms are faced with the challenge of finding the locals to fill positions with the firms. In raising the wages, more Singaporeans could be attracted to fill positions with the firms. Another likely outcome with a minimum wage is that it is likely to make Singapore lose her competitiveness. It is true that Singapore is not richly endowed with resources such as Scandinavia and Australia(Jeraldine Phneah, 2017). The country has no resources that it can rely on. The country has succeeded in surviving because of its competitive edge. With the minimum wage, the country will be eroding its edge in competition. In comparison to other nations such as China and India, the country will lose since China and India have a large number of workers that are willing to work at a lower wage. Minimum wage tends to make the poor unproductive. Economists argue that with a minimum wage in Singapore, it would result in workers having less incentive to motivate them(Jeraldine Phneah, 2017)(Bernstein, 2013). The conclusion is true more so for the poor individuals as it is argued they remain poor because they failed to work hard. Scientific principle and convention dictate that the poor lack ability to make critical decisions on important aspects of their lives such as finances and academic life creating a mental Helthcare burden that inhibits their intelligent quotient. It also limits the ability of the poor in making long-term strategies on making future investments. It beats logic that if people cannot have finances to support their families, then they cannot be in a position to improve and upgrade their skills. For many years, Singapore has been relying on cheap labor from foreign nations that are often referred to as low skilled labor(Mankiw, Economics, 2014). It is for suc h reasons that Singapore has been reluctant on relying on automation and improving skills or technology in the work place. Raising wages for individuals who had low salaries helps boost the morale of employees who consider themselves being treated fairly. Social security Social security is a scheme that facilitates the flow of income in the old age when one retires. The retirement varies from country to country with some countries such as the US is 62 years. Social security is necessary in the case a worker becomes disabled since such persons are covered ensuring a stream of income. In nations such as the United States, social security was designed to help those who have no jobs ensuring that such individuals at least have something at the end of the month (Internations).In other developed nations, the social security has been strengthened such that the poor and the desperate can have some earnings at the end of the month raising the GDP of such nations(Koeing Al Myles, 2013). A country like Singapore operates under Central Provident Fund a scheme that was established by the British during colonization. The scheme one way of providing scheme provided pensions for the employees from industries and was later expanded by Kuan Yew(Koeing Al Myles, 2013). Substantial evidence shows that the scheme could have more benefits to the working population from an investment perspective. It is true that the social security enabled many people in Singapore own houses a move that was almost impossible and for others, they invested in lucrative business opportunities. One negative effect associated with social security is the fact for high-income earners benefit less in future when claiming their benefits(Franklin, 2015). Such an argument arises from the fact that there are taxes accompanied with such schemes. The higher the income, the less the benefit from social security due to high taxes as one's income increases. Though the government benefits as an agent of the taxes, the intended purpose of the tax incentive is not achieved(Rothstein, 2008). On the other hand, there are spiraling effects of a social security scheme, for instance, it indirectly increases inflation in a country. With social security, people earn some income assuming it is a big number, and then it translates to having a lot of money chasing few goods in the economy. Whenever there is high demand for goods and services, then prices tend to increase. In the case it is a general increase in prices then the economy will experience inflation(Mankiw, Macroeconomics, 2014). Inflation reduces the standards of living as people purchase very few goods and services with the same amount of money that could have purchased many commodities before inflation. However, social security has many outstanding benefits compared to the disadvantages. In the old age, people benefit from pensions enabling such old people to lead normal lives without depending on other people to help them. The law of unintended consequences is full of many criticisms towards programs run by the government. The critics are for the fact that there are more costs to the programs making it difficult for the government to achieve the desired goals and objectives. Despite the fact that social security has helped alleviate poverty, for the many citizens. However, economists are for the fact that social security has many costs that extend beyond taxes levied on workers payroll and employers. As for the Singapore economy, (Norton) social security will make workers save less presently for the future old age since they are sure they will receive monetary gains from social protection programs after retiring. It is from such discussions that it can be concluded that there will be fewer savings making investments on the other hand less. Such effects affect the economy in that will grow slowly, and also the wages tend to rise slower than if the social security was not present. Investments are a function of savings, if savings decline, then investments also falls. However, an increase in savings tends to grow investments leading to an increase in the marginal propensity to invest. Tax credits Tax credits were introduced to help families that earned low incomes by increasing their wages with the aim of making work have a pay and reduce poverty. However, tax credits also entail and involve families that are unemployed, yet they have children.(Fisher, 2016) There were debates across the country that was focusing on the effects of tax credits on eliminating poverty and improving incomes of the households. Tax credit programs have the effect of changing incentives linked to choices of lifestyle and behaviors in some ways that may have implications for the recipients and their dependents. In many studies more so Singapore, tax incentives have helped individuals get involved in active labor and are one of the ways of raising incomes for the poor households(Fisher, 2016). It as has been found and proven beyond reasonable doubts that tax incentives have more complications in peoples lives that was unintended. High birth rates have been reported among the recipients of tax credits. In fact, it encourages people to have more children; in some countries such as the UK it encouraged poor individuals to breed. The case with Singapore would be more devastating leading to a population pressure in years to come. Tax credits in Singapore lower costs associated with additional children and further result in the demand for more children, other effects are working in the opposite direction. For instance, a woman who is engaged in formal employment following tax credits is likely to lose in terms earnings foregone following an additional child(Fisher, 2016). Though studies on effects of tax credits on whether they lead to increased birth rates it is clear that encourages people to have more children more so in Singapore. Families that earned low incomes tend to become like middle-income families in their spending. Previous studies in other countries have revealed that tax credits have changed spending patterns of households following the introduction of tax credit schemes(Fisher, 2016). In Singapore following the fact it is a developed nation, low-income families with children would tend to increase their spending habits on childrens products, vegetables, and books something that is done by middle-income households. Also, it would be expected that low-income families would to cut their spending on items such as alcohol and cigarettes and as such behave like middle-income households(Rothstein, 2008). Such a change of behavior could be attributed to a decline of stress following an improvement of financial status. Single mothers and children are cautioned from effects of a breakup. With the introduction of the tax credit in Singapore, there are enormous benefits for children that are raised by single parents(Koeing Al Myles, 2013) thus boosting self-esteem and reduce the rate of school dropout. Cases of children dropping out of school are many among individual families due to the low self-esteem and also due to unhappiness experienced by the teens. Socially, tax credits have the effect of influencing decision making in families. As such, it can be the case where women are the ones receiving tax credits leading to a conflict of interest in a family. When women receive tax credits over their male counterparts, then the spending habits will shift towards woman commodities and children stuff whereas men are left out in the budget allocation. References Bernstein, J. (2013, December 4)The Minimum Wage and the Laws of Economics. Retrieved August 3, 2017, from Economix Blog: https://www.economix.blogs.nytimes.com Fisher, p. (2016, January). What are the hidden effects of tax credits. Retrieved August 3, 2017, from OUPblog: https://blog.oup.com Franklin, M. (2015, March 3). Social security's negative returns. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from investmentnews: https://www.investmentnews.com Internations. (n.d.). Social security in Singapore. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from Internations.org: https://www.internations.org Jeraldine Phneah. (2017, January 16). The case for implementing a minimum wage in Singapore. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from jeraldinephneah: https://www.jeraldinephneah.com Koeing, G., Al Myles, M. (2013, September 5). Social security's impact on the National Economy. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from AARP: https://www.aarp.org Mankiw, G. (2014). Economics. Cengage Learning EMEA.Management. Mankiw, G. (2014). Macroeconomics. Cengage Learning. Norton, R. (n.d.). Unintended Consequences. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from Library of Economics and Liberty: https://www.econlib.org Rothstein, J. (2008, MAY 12). The unintended consequences of encouraging work.Tax incidence and the EITC. New Jersey, Princeton, United States of America.